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  1. The Level of vWF Antigen and Coagulation Markers in Hospitalized Patients with Covid-19 https://www.dovepress.com/the-level-of-vwf-antigen-and-coagulation-markers-in-hospitalized-patie-peer-reviewed-fulltext-article-JBM Authors Al Otair H, AlSaleh K, AlQahtany FS, Al Ayed K, Al Ammar H, Al Mefgai N, Al Zeer F Published 30 August 2021 Volume 2021:12 Pages 809—817 Department of Medicine, King Saud University Medical City, King Saud University, P.O. Box 2925(38), Riyadh, 11461, Saudi Arabia Background: The coagulopathy of COVID-19 still awaits more clarification, and one approach that has not been investigated is to compare the hemostatic changes between COVID-19 and non-COVID-19 infected patients. Objective: This study aims to study COVID-19 coagulopathy by measuring markers of endothelial injury and coagulation, including anticoagulants (TFPI, protein C, protein S, and AT) in COVID-19 patients and compare them with non-COVID-19 patients early in the course of the disease. Methodology: This is an observational, prospective cross-sectional study comparing the levels of protein C, protein S, antithrombin (AT) III, clotting factor (F) VIII, von Willebrand factor (vWF) and coagulation screening tests (PT and a PTT), fibrinogen, D-dimer in COVID-19 patients admitted during the same time with non-COVID-19 infections. The demographic and clinical data of the patients were collected from electronic medical records during admission. Blood tests were extracted within 24 hours of admission for both groups. Results: Fifty-four (66.7% males) consecutive COVID-19 patients and 24 (59% males) non-COVID-19 controls were enrolled in the study from October 2020 till December 2020. COVID-19 patients were significantly older than non-COVID-19 (57.7± 14.2 vs 50± 19.8 years, p= 0.005). Fibrinogen level was significantly higher in COVID-19 patients compared to controls (5.9± 1.48 vs 3.9± 1.57, p< 0.001). There was no statistically significant difference in the level of FVIII, protein C, S, ATIII, and D-dimer between the two groups. The level of vWF Ag was statistically higher in COVID-19 patients (276.7± 91.1 vs 184.7± 89.4, p=0.0001). There was significant thrombocytopenia and lymphopenia among COVID-19 patients. Inflammatory markers, CRP, ferritin, and LDH, were increased in COVID-19 patients compared to non-COVID-19, but the difference was not statistically significant. High fibrinogen and vWF AG levels were the two independent variables found in COVID-19 patients. Conclusion: The level of vWF Ag is increased early in the course of COVID-19 infection. This can be used as a biomarker for endothelial injury, which is peculiar to COVID-19 infection. Introduction Coronavirus disease (COVID-19) started in Wuhan, China, as multiple cases of pneumonia of unclear cause.1–3 On 11th March 2020, WHO declared COVID-19 as a pandemic after affecting more than 118,319 patients globally.4 Currently, more than 127 million cases are confirmed worldwide with 2,799,030 deaths.5 In the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia, the total number of cases has reached 388,860 with 6656 deaths, according to the last report (29th March 2021) from the Saudi Ministry of Health and the Saudi Centre of Disease Prevention and Control (CDC).6 It is well known now that severe acute respiratory syndrome corona virus2 (SARS-CoV-2) utilizes angiotensin-converting enzyme 2 (ACE2) receptor to enter human host cells.31 Specifically, SARS-CoV-2 surface spike protein binds to human ACE2 on the surface of the cell through its receptor-binding domain (RBD) which is activated by transmembrane protease serine 2 (TMPRSS2). This in turn induces virus-plasma membrane fusion and subsequent cell entry. Therefore, it plays a fundamental role in SARS-CoV-2 cellular infectivity as well as reduced viral recognition by neutralizing antibodies. Its expression by endothelial cells of the respiratory and digestive tracts explains many of the clinical presentations of COVID-19 infection.32–34 Patients with DM have an upregulation of ACE2 expression (total and glycosylated forms) on the surface of the cells secondary to the renin-angiotensin system activation.35 This contributes to the higher prevalence and worse prognosis of COVID-19 infection in patients with type 2 DM in conjunction with microvascular damage and overt inflammation mediated by high plasma levels of IL-6 and other pro-inflammatory cytokine.36 Similarly, the higher binding of COVID‐19 and ACE2 could explain the higher rate of hypertension among patients infected with covid-19 and their complicated course. ACE2 is a known modulator of the renin-angiotensin system (RAS) and responsible for many of the pathways underlying hypertension.37 Recently, many papers have reported an increased prevalence of venous and arterial thrombosis in COVID-19 patients.7–10 This is especially true in patients with non-O blood groups who have higher risk for arterial and venous thrombosis. Possibly related to alteration in hemostatic markers, vWF and FVIII, and over-inflammation.38 Similarly, postmortem studies have demonstrated the presence of widespread multiple microthrombi.11 Pulmonary embolism and deep vein thrombosis have also been reported in-69%of critically ill patients.9 During the last year, COVID-19 coagulopathy has been the subject of numerous publications, and it is now well established that the laboratory findings in COVID-19 coagulopathy are quite different from the usual findings of disseminated intravascular coagulation (DIC) seen commonly in septicemia.12,13 In hospitalized COVID-19 patients, the most observed abnormalities are elevations of plasma fibrinogen and D-dimer, along with a parallel rise in markers of inflammation (eg, CRP and cytokines), and minimum prolongation of prothrombin time (PT), activated partial thromboplastin time (aPTT), thrombin time (TT) and mild thrombocytopenia (platelet count ~100 x109/L).14,15 This does not fit in the findings noted in classical DIC.16 These unique features of COVID-19 have been researched extensively in the last few months, and no consensus on its pathophysiology has been reached. A recent article in Nature has described it rightly as the COVID-19 mystery.17,18 With this background in mind, we conducted a cross-sectional study to explore the mechanism of clot formation in COVID-19, specifically the level of clotting factor (F) VIII, von Willebrand factor (vWF), and natural anticoagulants in COVID-19 infection on admission to the hospital and compared it to the non-COVID-19 patients. We believe this approach of comparing markers of endothelial injury and coagulation between patients with COVID-19 pneumonia and bacterial pneumonia would bring out differences in the coagulopathy between these two groups of patients and thereby shed some light on the peculiar mechanism of the COVID-19 coagulopathy and better understanding of its pathophysiology, which may pave the way for novel therapeutic and/or preventive measures to prevent this potentially fatal complication• Materials and Methodology This study is a cross-sectional prospective observational study comparing COVID-19 patients confirmed by positive real-time polymerase chain reaction rt-PCR test, Roche Light Cycler® 480, of nasopharyngeal swabs, and non-COVID-19 patients admitted at King Khalid University Hospital, Riyadh, Saudi Arabia, between October 2020 and December 2020. Informed consent was obtained from all patients or their next of kin for reviewing their electronic medical records and collection of blood samples for the laboratory coagulation tests. The study was conducted in accordance with the Declaration of Helsinki. The study was approved by the Institutional Review Board of the College of Medicine-King Saud University, clinical trial number E-20-5099. Patient Selection The study included patients aged 18–80 years. We excluded incompetent or mentally disabled patients, oncology patients, pregnant or lactating women, patients known to have nephrotic syndrome and liver cirrhosis, and patients recently diagnosed with venous thromboembolism (<3 months) and those on anticoagulants. For the control patients (non-COVID-19) two negative screening rt-PCR test and diagnosis of community-acquired pneumonia (ATS definition) was required for enrolment.19 Demographic and clinical data were collected from the patients’ electronic charts and recorded in a data entry form. These included age, sex, basal metabolic rate (BMI), smoking, comorbidities, medication, and clinical presentation for COVID-19. The metrics for all the baseline laboratory investigations were collected from the system (HbA1C, D-dimer, CBC with differential count, serum ferritin, LDH, Cr, BUN, AST, ALT, Albumin, Bilirubin LDH and CRP). Using a citrated tube, blood samples for natural coagulation factors inhibitors (Protein C, S, Antithrombin (AT) III) were extracted by the attending nurse, within 24 hours of admission, for both COVID-19 and non-COVID-19 patients. Samples were then transferred to Hematopathology Laboratory at King Khalid University Hospital. Coagulation Tests The performed assays included PT, aPTT, fibrinogen, D-dimer, quantification of coagulation FVIII, and physiological inhibitor proteins (protein C, free protein S, and AT). The PT, aPTT, and plasma fibrinogen assays were determined on the NeoPTimal using STA®, PTT A ⑤, Liquid FIB respectively and D-Dimer assay on the Liatest® D-Di PLUS. The Protein S, Protein C, antithrombin assays were determined on the Staclot, Stachrom, Stachrom ATIII STA®, respectively. The ristocetin cofactor activity of vWF-Rco was determined by vWF: RCo and vWF: Ag using Liatest ® vWF: Ag STA®. Statistical Analysis For descriptive and inferential statistical data analyses, Statistical Package for Social Sciences software, version 25.0 (IBM SPSS Inc., Chicago, IL), was used. Both descriptive and inferential statistics involving the Chi-square test and T-independent Test were used to present the results. For each test, a p-value of less than 0.05 was considered statistically significant. Multiple logistic regression analysis and ROC curves were used to identify the independent variable. Results Fifty-four (66.7% males) consecutive COVID-19 patients and 24 (59% males) non-COVID-19 controls were enrolled in the study, from October 2020 till December 2020. The control group patients were diagnosed with community-acquired pneumonia, and 6 of them had acute decompensated heart failure. Seven patients (7.4%) of COVID-19 patients died, 2 patients developed PE and one patient DVT during hospitalization. The severity of Infection with Covid 19 was moderate in 15 patients, severe in 20 patients who required high flow oxygen or CPAP. Out of nineteen patients (35%) admitted to ICU, seven were put on mechanical ventilation (37%), and eight patients received anti-IL-6 (tocilizumab) therapy. Blood group O positive was the predominant ABO phenotype in both Covid-19 and non-COVID-19 patients, 56% and 48%, respectively. COVID-19 patients were significantly older than non-COVID-19 patients (57.7 + 14.2 years vs 50 ±19.8 years, p=0.005) and were more obese (BMI = 31.3 ±7.5 vs 25.7 ±6.9 kg/m2, P=0.003). Their mean Glycosylated Hb (HbA1C) was 7.69±2.1% (Table 1). Thirty-one patients (57%) of Covid-19 patients had type2DM and were on anti-hyperglycemic drugs, while 24 patients (44.4%) were hypertensive There were more smokers in the control group compared to the COVID-19 group (Table 2). There was no difference in comorbid conditions between the COVID-19 and non-COVID-19 groups apart from chronic lung disease, which was more common in the COVID-19 group (18.5% vs 0%, p=0.024) (Table 3). Forty-nine patients (90.7%) of COVID-19 patients versus 18 patients (75%) of controls received LMWH, enoxaparin for VTE prophylaxis, but the difference was not statistically significant (p=0.065). Additionally, the use of antiplatelets was similar among the 2 groups (22.2% vs 33.3%, p=0.3)(Table 3) Table 1 The Laboratory Result Values of COVID-19 Patients and Control Subjects Table 2 Demographic Profile of Study Participants Table 3 Comparison of Co-Morbid Conditions Between (COVID-19 Patients and Control Individuals) Laboratory Results Plasma fibrinogen was significantly higher in COVID-19 patients compared to controls (5.9 ±1.5 vs 3.9 ±1.57, p=0.000). There was no statistically significant difference in the level of proteins C, S, ATIII between the two groups. Similarly, the level of FVIII, although it was elevated in both groups high, it did not differ significantly between the 2 two groups (196.8 ±83.3% vs 227.4±82.9%, p=0.138). However, the level of factor vWF AG was statistically higher in COVID-19 patients (276.7 ±91.01 vs 184.7 ±89.4, p=0.0001) (Table 1). There was a trend towards increased vWF activity in Covid-19 patients, but this did not reach statistical significance, probably due to the small sample size (191,5.31±68,8.18% vs 177.1 ±64.5%, p=0.08). The level of clotting FVIII was increased in COVID-19 as well as in non-COVID-19 patients, with no significant difference between the two groups (p=0.138). There was significant thrombocytopenia and lymphopenia in the COVID-19 group, but there were no differences found in coagulation tests PT, aPTT, and D-dimers levels (Table 1). Inflammatory markers CRP, Ferritin in, and LDH were highly elevated in both COVID-19 and non-COVID-19 patients, but there was no statistical difference between both COVID-19 and non-COVID-19 patients (Table 1). In the multivariate logistic regression analysis of the laboratory values, high fibrinogen and vWF: AG levels were the 2 independent variables found in COVID-19 patients (Table 4). Plasma fibrinogen (OR = 2.552; 95% CI= 1.2835.077; P <0.05) and vWF Ag (OR = 1.011; 95%) COVID-19 patients were used to generate ROC curves (Figure 1). The area under the ROC curve of 0.0.652 for age (P >0.05), of 0.738 for BMI (P <0.05), of 0.678 for smoking (P <0.05), of 0.309 for sex (P <0.05), of 0.202 for lymphopenia (P 5), of 0.797 for Hg (P <0.05), of 0.404 for PT (P <0.05), of 0.862 for fibrinogen (P < 0.05) and of 0.795 for VWF Ag (P <0.05) (Figure 1). Table 4 Multivariate Logistic Regression Analysis of the Laboratory Result Values Obtained from COVID-19 Patients and Control Figure 1 ROC curves for multivariate logistic regression models of significant variables among COVID-19-patients. Discussion This study investigated some of the markers of endothelial dysfunction, coagulation factors, and level of natural anticoagulants early in the course of COVID-19 infection in comparison to non-COVID-19 patients admitted with community-acquired pneumonia CAP during the same time period. We found that the level of vWF Ag, which is a marker of endothelial injury, was significantly higher in COVID-19 patients than in bacterial infections. Its release following SARS-CoV-2 infection of endothelial cells leads to platelet activation and increased levels of FVIII. We also found an Increased level of D-dimer and fibrinogen early in COVID-19 infection. Our findings highlight the important role of endotheliitis in COVID-19 coagulopathy. The high level of vWF Ag and activity may indicate that endothelial stimulation has taken place very early in the course of COVID-19, resulting in the release of vWF from the endothelium. This process is mediated by ACE2 receptors for SAR-Cov-2 on the surface of endothelial cells20 and contributes to the upregulation of fibrinogen and other procoagulants. This goes in parallel with the increase in the inflammatory markers IL6, ferritin, LDH. CRP and suggests that VWF can be a predictive marker of severe infection.21,39 The direct infection of the endothelial cells also leads to platelet activation and increased levels of VWF and FVIII, all of which contribute to thrombin generation and fibrin clot formation.22 The resultant endothelial cell activation can, to a great extent, explain the pulmonary microvascular thrombosis found in post-mortem examination of deceased patients with COVID-19,23,24 The level of FVIII in this study cohort of COVID-19 patients was increased early in the disease and the platelet count was mildly reduced. Interestingly, the levels of natural anticoagulants (Pr C, S, ATIII) in COVID-19 patients were low normal but were not different from that found in patients with non-COVID-19 patients with CAP. This could indicate that depletion of natural anticoagulants occurs in both bacterial and viral infection at a later stage. In addition, this study found that biomarkers of coagulation (such as D-dimer, fibrinogen, platelet count) were affected early in the COVID-19 infection. Previous studies reported that D-dimer could be used to differentiate between COVID-19 patients with severe versus mild disease.22,25 A cut-off value of D-dimer of ≥2 µg/mL (fourfold increase) within 24 hours after hospital admission was reported by Zhang et al to predict in-hospital mortality with a sensitivity of 92.3% and a specificity of 83.3%.26 Of note, the two study groups were not different in the anticoagulant agent used for VTE prophylaxis (Table 3); therefore, the changes noted in D-dimer, fibrinogen and coagulation factors were not related to the type of anticoagulant agent. The increase in fibrinogen noticed early in COVID-19 infection helps differentiate bacterial sepsis or DIC from COVID-19 induced coagulopathy.27 Besides, the associated thrombocytopenia and prolonged activated partial thromboplastin time tend to be mild.18 This supports the theory that arterial thrombosis in COVID-19 is the result of direct endotheliitis caused by SARS-CoV-2 infection of endothelial cells through the two receptors of angiotensin-converting enzyme which results in disseminated microthrombosis, reactive endotheliitis and release of von Willebrand (vWF) multimers.18,39 This seems to be peculiar for COVID-19 and not shared with other viruses that present with decreased plasma fibrinogen concentrations, such as Ebola or Dengue, responsible for hemorrhagic fever and associated with the hypercoagulable state.28 In this study, the lymphocyte count of COVID-1919 pts was statistically lower than non-COVID-19 and occurred early in the disease. This is in agreement with previous studies that reported lymphopenia in 70.3% of hospitalized COVID-19 patients29 and can be considered as a biomarker of adaptive immune response and was found to be associated with COVID-19 severity.30 Limitations of This Study Including the small sample size and being a single-center study, other inflammatory markers, eg, ferritin.IL 6 and procalcitonin were not compared among the two groups. Future studies in a larger number of patients are needed to confirm our findings and probably try to identify other soluble and cellular markers of early endothelial derangement. This will help to further reveal the role of endotheliitis in the procoagulant mechanism of SARs-cov2 infection, eg, plasma VWF propeptide (VWF pp). Conclusion Endothelial injury activation markers are increased early in COVID-19 infection, which is peculiar to COVID-19. The levels of VWF-Ag and fibrinogen are higher in COVID-19 infection than in non-COVID-19 bacterial infections. We probably need to target endothelial injury in early COVID-19 to halt the activation of the coagulation system and consumption of natural anticoagulants and triggering of inflammatory response. VWF Ag can be used as a biomarker for endothelial injury in COVID-19 early in the course of infection and may play a role as a prognostic indicator as demonstrated in other recent studies. Ethics Approval and Consent to Participate The research proposal for this study was approved by the Institutional Review Board (IRB) of the King Saud University, Riyadh Saudi Arabia (IRB Approval Project No. E-205099) for human studies. Informed consents were obtained from the subjects or authorized family representatives with strict confidentiality of information gathered. The study was conducted in accordance with the Declaration of Helsinki. Acknowledgments The authors are grateful to the College of Medicine Research centre and Deanship of Scientific Research, King Saud University (KSU), Riyadh; Saudi Arabia for support and funding. Funding This study was supported and funded by the College of Medicine Research Centre CMRC and the Deanship of Scientific Research of King Saud University, Riyadh, Saudi Arabia. Disclosure The authors of this paper have no conflicts of interest, including specific financial interests, relationships, and/or affiliations relevant to the subject matter or materials included.
  2. It is your choice whether you get the vaccine. The vaccine produces an immune response. Some people refer to the headaches, arm ache, temperature, tiredness, etc, that some people experience as side effects but in reality this is what you want... it means your body has noticed the (inactive) virus and is responding to it. If you look at the statistics for the number of positive cases detected through testing (see Worldometer) the US has confirmed 34 million cases in a population of 332 million. So roughly 1 in 10 people have been infected. Of these 614,000 did not survive. That works out as a 1.8% fatality rate. That doesn’t include those with long covid symptoms. If you choose not to be vaccinated, are you comfortable with a 1 in 55 chance of death? …bearing in mind there are 5 million active cases among fellow citizens that could lead to an infection (1 in 66 currently have a covid infection). The alternative is to get the vaccine. It is approximately 94% effective. That improves your odds to 1 in 5,170. So it's not perfect, some people will not make it either way. The 1 in 500,000 possibility of a rare side effect from the vaccine itself only tweaks that number by 0.01 - making it 1 in 5,170.01 Put that into context of a small town with say 20,000 population. With vaccine 4 deaths. Without vaccine 363 deaths. Another benefit of the vaccine, apart from improving your odds of surviving the pandemic, is to reduce transmission. So your own vaccination helps to protect friends and family. It also reduces the numbers of patients in hospitals. If you become unwell the hospital can offer treatment. If it is full then more people could die due to lack of medical care. A full hospital reduces that 1 in 55 figure. In my personal experience I had a strong immune response to the first dose of Astra Zenica. I had a migraine (which I suffer from anyway), temperature for a day, and my arm ached for 2 weeks. When I had my second dose my arm ached slightly for a week. You have to ask yourself, if it is the same drug and the same person, then why didn’t it produce the same ‘side effects’ ... of course the answer is my body had developed my immune defence and was ready second time around. It means it’s ready to deal with the actual virus if I come into contact with it. From our Facebook Group with 1600 members some people have shared concerns about the combination of PSD with vaccines and with Covid. Nobody has reported any clotting issues as a result of the vaccine. Some people have reported they contracted Covid and recovered. None of the vaccine makers have listed PSD as a contradindication but a few other health conditions may apply so you will need to ask your doctor for your personal circumstances. Nobody is claiming that the vaccine makes you safe, only safer. How you choose to balance the choice of getting, or not getting, the vaccine is up to you. (As per the footer… Disclaimer: For your own health and safety you should always seek the advice of a qualified medical practitioner and not act on information published on this web site. No responsibility can be accepted for the content or absence of content published on this site for any reason.)
  3. I have Protein S Deficiency with a history of DVT and PE, and have been taking warfarin for around 30 years. My first wisdom tooth was removed in 2006, another in 2010, my third in 2016, and my last yesterday. I previously reported about my first extraction here and thought it might be worth an update to share some new details. This dentist required an INR of between 2.0 and 4.0 with a test taken in the previous 2 days. The advice appears to have changed over the years because it should be within this range under normal circumstances, and previously I was asked to reduce my INR to a lower level. I am fortunate to have a relatively stable INR so even though I wasn’t specifically asked I intentionally skipped two days of warfarin and this brought my INR down from 3.5 to 2.2. After surgery I went back on my normal dose and will have my INR rechecked in about a week’s time. The wisdom tooth that was removed was a lower molar, which the dentist explained was usually physically harder to remove than upper molars due to the root structure. The hole was then packed with material to help it heal and dissolvable stitches to keep it in place. Apart from the risk of post-surgical bleeding I was treated the same way as anyone else. However due to my warfarin I was referred by my regular dentist to one that specialises in extractions and I feel his expertise made all the difference. I had a rough experience on my extraction in 2010 with a regular dentist and so if anyone else is considering wisdom tooth extraction my advice would be to ask your ‘general’ dentist whether you can be referred to one that specialises in removing teeth. I just think you’ll have a better experience and less bruising.
  4. Thrombosis can cause depletion of Protein S. In the case of Covid-19 the virus causes inflammation of the lungs, and subsequent damage causes clotting. The virus itself doesn’t cause the clots directly. To be reliable the screening for your diagnosis should have been based on blood samples taken a couple of months after your thrombosis, when your natural levels would have recovered.
  5. The eligibility criteria for joining the UK Royal Navy and Royal Marines includes age, height, weight, tattoos and piercings, eye sight, pregnancy and minimum fitness targets. The current medical restrictions include ‘any bleeding disorder or abnormality of blood clotting’ as set out in the following PDF document. https://www.royalnavy.mod.uk/-/media/files/cnr-pdfs/20201127eligibility-formworduc15122020update.pdf
  6. Synchronous presentation of COVID‐19 pneumonia and pulmonary embolism Farid Poursadegh, Najmeh Davoudian, Mahnaz Mozdourian, Fahimeh Abdollahi First published: 27 January 2021, https://doi.org/10.1002/ccr3.3870 *** Simultaneous diagnosis of COVID‐19 pneumonia and pulmonary embolism without any deep vein thrombosis nor predisposing hypercoagulable states was observed. Therefore, patients with COVID‐19 pneumonia who suffer from worsening of the clinical respiratory symptoms, after the beginning of the treatment, should be evaluated for pulmonary embolism using CT angiography, if safe. *** 3 DISCUSSION Previous studies evidenced that SARS‐CoV‐2 stimulates the coagulation pathway, resulting in abnormal coagulation parameters and endothelial dysfunction. These make the important factor of increased D‐dimer level a poor prognostic factor for patients with COVID‐19.10, 11 Also, the biopsy examination of patients who died with the diagnosis of COVID‐19 has revealed histomorphologically diffuse alveolar damage confirming the COVID‐19–induced coagulopathy. In our case, as a patient with COVID‐19 presented with pulmonary embolism without any previous predisposing hypercoagulable risk factor, the level of protein C and protein S had decreased with a considerable rise in D‐dimer. In another study by Panigada et. al., opposite results have been reported. By assessing 24 COVID‐19 patients in the intensive care unit, they have reported an increase in the level of protein C and a marginal decrease in the level of protein S. The kinetics and robustness of the immune response to COVID‐19 are yet to be known. Recent studies show that respiratory failure in COVID‐19 patients is not only caused by respiratory distress but also microscopic clot formation processes. This finding may be a clue to a better understanding of the treatment of these patients. There is a strong relationship between the levels of D‐dimer molecule and disease progression and CT scan findings in these patients, which indicates the cause of venous clots in them. Some studies also show that there is not a direct relationship between D‐dimer levels and disease severity. Accordingly, imaging studies have confirmed that COVID‐19 syndrome is an inflammatory, clotting‐inflammatory process that negatively affects lung function, and in later stages, affects other organs in the body.
  7. Instagram celebrity Mrs Hinch has Protein S deficiency and Factor V Leiden, in the The Sun news. Mrs Hinch previously opened up about her health problems in her book, Hinch Yourself Happy. She was forced to miss her honeymoon a few years ago after falling ill with a blood clot, suffering back pain and a swollen leg, which left her unable to stand. https://www.thesun.co.uk/fabulous/12611235/mrs-hinch-blood-condition-bruises/
  8. Rory Bremner has revealed in a Daily Mail interview that he and his brother have Protein S Deficiency... ‘My Dad died of cancer in 1979 when he was 72 and I was 18. My older brother Nigel has protein S deficiency, a blood clotting disorder. A year ago, I had a curious itchy rash on my shin and my wife thought a clot was developing. Sure enough, I also have protein S deficiency. It can only be treated with anticoagulant medication.’ Interview appears below this article... https://www.dailymail.co.uk/health/article-9185645/Why-taking-afternoon-nap-not-dozy-idea.html
  9. It would be best for you to speak to your doctor and ask for a referral to a haematologist for your longer term healthcare options. They will understand how to obtain a test result that gives an accurate understanding of whether you have a natural deficiency in your Protein C or Protein S levels. Unfortunately test results can be unreliable if they are taken at the same time as the thrombosis or soon after, so you need to have a recovery period and let things settle down before testing takes place. A haematologist will usually look into family history and screening of your relatives too... for example if mother and father can be tested this will let them know if there is a hereditary cause and their tests won't be influenced by any recent thrombosis.
  10. Dr Shelley Hayles is a GP based in Oxford involved in helping set up the trial. She believes that up to 10% of those who have had Covid-19 might have some form of lung damage which is leading to prolonged symptoms. https://www.bbc.co.uk/news/health-55017301
  11. Just my personal opinion, I don't have any science papers to support my comments, and you could probably argue either way depending on your outlook.
  12. You are right, news reports about the Coronavirus often refer to Protein S but they are talking about a Protein Spike, when describing the virus itself. This has nothing to do with the Protein S that circulates in our blood. Anticoagulants are sometimes used in the treatment of Covid. The research shown above suggests that Protein S levels may be reduced by Covid, perhaps contributing to the possibility of clot formation. However that research was not conducted with a Protein S Deficiency in mind, and just as you could argue it might make the deficiency worse, it could also mean that we are more tolerant of an additional reduction. But you also need to bear in mind the scenario for that situation is when there is lung damage, in severe cases of Covid, probably at the induced ventilation stage. It is highly unlikely that a vaccine would cause such a response. I am not a doctor and would not expect us to be treated any differently for vaccination, except that a thrombosis history might put those people nearer to the front of the queue. And taking anticoagulants probably reduces our risks of Covid complications. So overall, we are probably better placed than the average person.
  13. Related topic on MERTK... https://journals.plos.org/plosone/article?id=10.1371/journal.pone.0225051 The role of endothelial MERTK during the inflammatory response in lungs
  14. Role of Vitamin K-Dependent Factors Protein S and GAS6 and TAM Receptors in SARS-CoV-2 Infection and COVID-19-Associated Immunothrombosis by Anna Tutusaus 1, Montserrat Marí 1, José T. Ortiz-Pérez 2,3, Gerry A. F. Nicolaes 4, Albert Morales 1,5,* and Pablo García de Frutos 1,3,* Cells 2020, 9(10), 2186; https://doi.org/10.3390/cells9102186 (registering DOI) https://www.mdpi.com/2073-4409/9/10/2186 The vitamin K-dependent factors protein S (PROS1) and growth-arrest-specific gene 6 (GAS6) and their tyrosine kinase receptors TYRO3, AXL, and MERTK, the TAM subfamily of receptor tyrosine kinases (RTK), are key regulators of inflammation and vascular response to damage. TAM signaling, which has largely studied in the immune system and in cancer, has been involved in coagulation-related pathologies. Because of these established biological functions, the GAS6-PROS1/TAM system is postulated to play an important role in SARS-CoV-2 infection and progression complications. The participation of the TAM system in vascular function and pathology has been previously reported. However, in the context of COVID-19, the role of TAMs could provide new clues in virus-host interplay with important consequences in the way that we understand this pathology. From the viral mimicry used by SARS-CoV-2 to infect cells, to the immunothrombosis that is associated with respiratory failure in COVID-19 patients, TAM signaling seems to be involved at different stages of the disease. TAM targeting is becoming an interesting biomedical strategy, which is useful for COVID-19 treatment now, but also for other viral and inflammatory diseases in the future.
  15. UK Researchers Identify COVID-19 Blood Clotting Cause By Elizabeth Chapin https://uknow.uky.edu/research/uk-researchers-identify-covid-19-blood-clotting-cause LEXINGTON, Ky. (Sept. 17, 2020) — A new University of Kentucky College of Medicine study may provide answers for why so many COVID-19 patients experience thrombosis, or the formation of blood clots that obstruct blood flow through the circulatory system. The research led by Jeremy Wood, Zach Porterfield and Jamie Sturgill in the Department of Internal Medicine; Beth Garvy in Microbiology, Immunology & Molecular Genetics; and Wally Whiteheart in Molecular & Cellular Biochemistry, suggests that localized inflammation in the lungs caused by COVID-19 may be responsible for the increased presence of blood clots in patients. The study also provides evidence suggesting the risk of thrombosis could persist after the infection clears. The study examined the blood of 30 COVID-19 patients including 15 who were inpatients in the intensive care unit, and 15 who received care as outpatients at UK’s Infectious Diseases Clinic, along with eight disease-free volunteers who acted as a control group. Compared to baseline, the COVID-19 patients had elevated levels of tissue factor, a protein found in blood that initiates the clotting process. Patients also had reduced levels of protein S, an anticoagulant that helps prevent blood clotting. The researchers concluded that lung inflammation caused by COVID-19 is what leads to a decrease in protein S. This inflammation also causes immune and possible endothelial cell activation, which leads to increased tissue factor protein. “What we’ve learned is that the clotting is not caused by anything systemic. Localized inflammation in the lungs is what’s driving this whole process,” Wood said. “With an increase in tissue factor and a deficiency in protein S, COVID-19 patients get more blood clotting without the ability to shut it down or control it.” The study additionally showed that protein S levels remained low in some patients even after they tested negative for COVID-19, which suggests that blood clotting issues may persist after infection and long-term monitoring of thrombotic risk may be necessary. Wood says this preliminary data could be a cause for concern. Certain viruses like HIV are linked to a long-term deficiency in protein S, which causes an ongoing risk of thrombosis in patients. It is not yet known if COVID-19 could cause a similar persisting protein S deficiency. “Tissue factor and protein S are good markers to monitor for long-term thrombosis risk and the data suggest that we need to be monitoring these patients because we’re not seeing these parameters corrected immediately,” Wood said. The research team recently received a grant from UK’s Center for Clinical and Translational Science (CCTS) to begin a longitudinal study to look at these levels in patients over the next year. “This will help answer the question: will this risk remain like it is in the HIV patients or will it go away?” The study was funded in part by an Alliance Grant through the College of Medicine as well as UK’s COVID-19 Unified Research Experts (CURE) Alliance through the Vice President for Research and the College of Medicine and the CCTS. It was a product of collaboration between a number of different groups at UK that have been studying COVID-19. Additional collaborators include Martha Sim, Meenakshi Banerjee and Hammodah Alfar in the Department of Molecular and Cellular Biochemistry; Melissa Hollifield and Jerry Woodward with Microbiology, Immunology and Molecular Genetics; Xian Li with the Saha Cardiovascular Research Center; Alice Thornton with the Division of Infectious Disease; and Gail Sievert, Marietta Barton-Baxter and Kenneth Campbell with CCTS.
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